Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune and neuroinflammatory disorder that affects the neurological system and impairs body functions. The pathogenesis of MS is characterized by development of auto-antibodies against myelin peptides/sheath of nerve cells that results in nerve inflammation and impaired neurotransmission control between the muscles and the central nervous system.
In MS patients, impaired motor control leads to uncontrolled spastic movements and pain symptoms. Spasticity is characterized by overactive muscle activity with movement disorder, pain, generalized weakness, hypertonia, and contracture – as well as associated neurological problems. The complete pathogenesis of spasticity in MS patients is not understood. However, it is believed that it occurs as a result of selective neuronal loss and alterations in the balance.
Based on the available findings, it has been confirmed that MS is an immune-mediated disorder, and the treatment should target, modulate,